HYI Working Paper Series: Tian Wuxiong

同声异气:中国1958年从朝鲜全部撤军方案的形成 [Different Intentions with One Voice: The Making of Chinese Troops’ Withdrawal Package from the DPRK in 1958] (Tian Wuxiong, PhD candidate, Peking University)

摘要:1953年朝鲜停战后,联合国军和中国人民志愿军始终未能就一切外国军队撤离朝鲜半岛达成协议。尽管如此,至1955年底,联合国军和中国人民志愿军却已将大部分军队从韩国或朝鲜撤离。1958年2月,朝鲜和中国政府公开宣布中国军队将于年内单方面从朝鲜撤离完毕。10月26日,最后一批志愿军回到中国,撤军行动完成。表面上看,中朝宣布并实施这一撤军行动,旨在迫使联合国军也从韩国全部撤离。但实际上,中国军队单方面撤军却有着相当复杂的政治背景和原因。中国撤军方案的形成过程反映出1950年代中后期中国、朝鲜以及苏联之间微妙复杂的关系,从毛泽东主动向金日成提议全部撤军、金日成先后提出两套撤军方案、中国对于撤军方案的取舍和修订、待苏联同意后毛泽东才答复金日成以及并非全部志愿军留驻中国东北等细节中可以清楚读出,在中朝“团结友谊愈臻巩固”的话语背后,各自利益的不同考量与诉求。

Abstract: It is known that Chinese People’s Volunteers (CPV) was completely withdrawn from the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) in 1958 while its opponent the United Nations forces were still stationed in the Republic of Korea. Yet how Chinese troops’ withdrawal package was made is ambiguous. This paper examines the details surrounding the making of the 1958 withdrawal package. It focuses on Mao Zedong’s initiated proposal of the withdrawal, two of Kim Il-sung’s draft plans for the withdrawal, China’s choice to Kim’s plans and its specific revisions to the selected plan, China’s negotiations with the Soviet Union on the withdrawal and the destinations of the withdrawn Chinese troops. The author argues that the making of CPV’s withdrawal package from the DPRK in 1958 clearly shows that, behind the discourse of China and the DPRK’s “unity and friendship becoming more and more consolidated”, the two sides still had their own respective benefits and intentions.

关键词:毛泽东 金日成 苏联 志愿军 联合国军/美军    Keywords: Mao Zedong, Kim Il-sung, Soviet Union, CPV, United Nations forces

Note: This paper has been accepted by the Journal of Liaocheng University (Social Science Edition), to be published in issue no.163 (September 2014). The author would like to thank the Journal of Liaocheng University (Social Science Edition) for their generosity which allows this paper to also be published in the HYI Working Paper Series.

Full paper [PDF]