Ha-kyoung Lee is currently a Ph.D. candidate in the Graduate School of Political Sciences, Seoul National University, Korea. She obtained her B.A. in English Education and M.A. in Political Science from Seoul National University. Her research interests include ideological foundations of ruling elites, power politics among political actors, relations between society and state, and historical transactions of political structures in Korea. Her Ph.D. dissertation aims to examine the characteristics of state-society relations in the late Chosǒn Dynasty – the period between the late nineteenth and the early twentieth century – by tracing changes in the identity, power, and role of the ruling elite.